Saturday, January 9, 2010

system requirements of Mac OS

Platform Mac OS X 10.4.x and later (Tiger and Leopard)
CPU Intel or Power PC
Memory Min: 128M
Free disk space Min: 500M

Disadvatages of Mac OS

However, one thing that discourages users from using Mac OS is the limitation on the number of programs and software available for use under the OS. Because Mac OS has a lesser market compared to Windows, there are also lesser programs and applications that can be used. Some useful and popular applications are still not made available for Mac. Take for example the AutoCAD, which is used for computer-aided drafting. Even some famous computer games are only still exclusive for Windows OS. Many users who may have seen Mac OS good may settle for Windows considering that the programs and software they need can only be used through Windows.

advantages of Mac OS

Once upon a time Apple Computer issued a document called the "50 Mac Advantages," which later became the "75 Mac Advantages," a document which purported to list 75 different advantages the Mac OS had over its chief competitor, Microsoft Windows 95. The Advantages document was created as a promotional item to be handed out to Evangelistas. Origin of the 75 Mac Advantages describes the history of the development of the 75 advantages in more detail.

Despite some flaws, the original document listed substantive differences between Mac OS 8.1 and Windows 95, which were contemporary products. Among other problems, the original document had a disconcerting way of shifting between versions of Windows

to put the Mac OS in its best light. Overall, however, it was a very popular document with Mac advocates, and this series was based on an archival copy located at Alex Paterson's web site and used as source material.

In this series of articles, I have attempted to update the 75 Advantages to reflect the current state of the Mac OS (at 9.1/X) and the Windows operating system (now reflected by its Win2000, Me, and upcoming XP offerings). This being Low End Mac, the emphasis is on Win 98 and OS 9, but information about the other versions is included from time to time.

Meaning of Mac OS

Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple would later name the "Mac OS" was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh, usually referred to simply as the System software.

Apple deliberately downplayed the existence of the operating system in the early years of the Macintosh to help make the machine appear more user-friendly and to distance it from other operating systems such as MS-DOS, which was more arcane and technically challenging. Much of this early system software was held in ROM, with updates typically provided free of charge by Apple dealers on floppy disk. As increasing disk storage capacity and performance gradually eliminated the need for fixing much of an advanced GUI operating system in ROM, Apple explored cloning while positioning major operating system upgrades as separate revenue-generating products, first with System 7.1 and System 7.5, then with Mac OS 7.6 in 1997.

Early versions of the Mac OS were compatible only with Motorola 68000-based Macintoshes. As Apple introduced computers with PowerPC hardware, the OS was upgraded to support this architecture as well. Mac OS 8.1 was the last version that could run on a 68000-class processor (the 68040). Mac OS X, which has superseded the "Classic" Mac OS, is compatible with both PowerPC and Intel processors through version 10.5 ("Leopard"). Version 10.6 ("Snow Leopard") supports only Intel processors.



system requirements of Windows Vista

  • 800-megahertz (MHz) 32-bit (x86) processor or 800-MHz 64-bit (x64) processor
  • 512 megabytes (MB) of system memory
    Note On system configurations that use system memory as graphics memory, at least 448 MB of system memory must be available to the operating system after some memory is allocated for graphics.
  • DirectX 9-class graphics card
  • 32 MB of graphics memory
  • 20-gigabyte (GB) hard disk that has 15 GB of free hard disk space
  • Internal or external DVD drive
  • Internet access capability
  • Audio output capability

disadvantages of Windows Vista

Microsoft's Windows Vista has been a highly-anticipated operating system. Despite the impressive Aero Glass interface, the plethora of new features, and improved load times through ReadyBoost, Windows Vista has many disadvantages, most of which will be discussed below.

advantages of Windows Vista

Windows Vista Advantages

SuperFetch prioritizes the programs you’re currently using and adapts to the way you work by tracking the programs you use frequently, at what times of day that programs are used and intelligently preloading these into memory.

So what so great about this you ask. If your computer is struggling to accommodate other tasks while your antivirus or backup utility or even Photoshop image processing is running, just plug in a USB 2.0 thumb drive to boost the memory and you can literally enjoy a performance boost instantly.

If you are using a laptop

, SuperFetch will lengthen your battery life too because your hard disk spin less frequently which translates to less power consumption.

As for me, the reason I upgraded my desktop RAM to 3GB recently is to take advantage of this feature.

Those I/O hangs will be a thing of the past as Vista is engineered to avoid them and the interference from rouge processes. Yes no more system hanging and pressing the reboot button finally.

From the security department, one of XP’s biggest security problem is that it promotes everybody who wants the ability to run a vast number of programs and conduct common activities as an Administrator. As a result anybody, including a malicious program that has the admin privileges is able to wreak havoc and exploit your system.

Meaning of Windows Vista

The current version of Windows for the desktop. Released in late 2006 for businesses and early 2007 for consumers, Vista is available in six versions (see Windows Vista versions). Vista adds numerous features, including improved security (see NGSCB) and greater support for digital rights management. Requiring more memory than Windows XP, at least 1GB is recommended, with 2GB being a safer bet. The next major upgrade to follow Vista is expected in 2010 (see Windows 7).

sytem requirements of MS DOS

The following are the requirements for executing CLAIMS. Higher

values may yield better performance depending on various factors,

and in some special circumstances, lower values may actually

work, but are not supported.

1) A 386sx-class PC or better

2) Client operating system requirements:

16-bit character mode: MS-DOS 5.0 or Windows 3.1 or higher

32-bit character mode: MS-DOS 6.22 or Windows 95/98 or NT

32-bit gui-mode: Windows 95/98 or NT

3) Memory requirements: all numbers reflect the amount of memory that

must be available to CLAIMS

16-bit character mode: 512 KB free conventional

1,024 bytes free environment space

120 available file handles

32-bit character mode: 512 KB free conventional

3.1MB free EMS (expanded) or XMS (extended)

1,024 bytes free environment space

120 available file handles

32-bit gui-mode: 64 MB RAM

4) Disk Space required for programs

16-bit character mode: 30 MB

32-bit character mode: 45 MB

32-bit gui-mode: 65 MB

5) Disk Space required for data: 120 MB minimum (1 GB recommended)


The following are in addition to the above requirements. These

vary with the combination of client and server operating systems

in use.

The most important issue with recent versions of Windows and

networking software is the introduction of write caching of data

at the client. This is a way of "cheating" to improve network

throughput. It is also a way to guarantee that data being shared

from a central server will get corrupted on a multi-user system.


client/server database such as Btrieve, DB2, Oracle, SQL Server,


Another performance improvement technique which is inadvisable in

most circumstances has to do with file and record locking for

handling multi-user updating of the database. The technique is

referred to as "Opportunistic Locking." If you use it, it will

become an opportunity to corrupt your database. It should be


Disadvantages of MS DOS


There is no GUI. (excluding DOSSHELL and other 3rd party GUI's). Interface on a base install is command line only.
Since BG declered that "DOS is dead" we have to put uo with his propoganda why we should upgrade to Windows XP because "DOS is dead".
More difficult to use than Windows.

advantages of MS DOS


Commands are simple to renember and use.
DOS is a very stable OS. I only had it crash once.
DOS is the underlying OS on all Windows products today discounting the NT line (NT, Win2000, Win XP).
DOS does not take up that much space on a hard drive, (only around 8 MB for a full install).
Very portable (look at bootdisks, although the fuctionality is not near that of a full OS, it works great for rescuing a crashed hard drive, Fdisking, formatting hard drives, and running old DOS apps that will not run with Windows or newer versions of DOS).
DOS is a contraction for Disk Operating System.
DOS is very stable, I have only once had DOS crash on me.
DOS is cheap, and free if you go on the internet.
Very fast even on a reletivly slow machine.

MS DOS Operating System

Microsoft's disk operating system, MS-DOS, was Microsoft's implementation of DOS, which was the first popular operating system for the IBM PC, and until recently, was widely used on the PC compatible platform. It was originally released with the PC in 1981 and had seven major versions before Microsoft stopped development in 1995. It was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources.

System requirements of Windows XP

Windows XP System Requirements

Table of Contents
Divider Image
Microsoft's XP Pro System Requirements

Disadvantages of Windows XP operating system

One of the not so great advancements of Windows XP is product activation. This disables the operating system if you modify your hardware in ways Microsoft doesn’t like. Another disadvantage is that Windows XP contains Microsoft’s new Passport and .Net, which many believe will diminish users’ privacy, security, and control over their computers. A draw back to the corporate licensing is that Microsoft insists on a short-term Windows subscription rather than a one-time purchase if companies want upgrades discounts or premier support contracts.

Advantages of Windows XP

It isn't a backup program. It isn't an OS re-install. But the System Restore built into Windows XP can save you from a world of hurt.

It's not a backup recovery. It's not an operating system reload. And it can't replace either of those Windows features. But the System Restore component of Windows XP is the biggest "undo" available for Windows—and all for just a couple of minutes of your time, rather than hours or days.

Windows XP

What is Windows XP?
Windows XP is Microsoft's newest desktop operating system for both consumers and businesses. Over the past few years, Microsoft has been building and supporting two completely separate versions of Windows. Windows 95/98/Me was designed for consumers with an emphasis on ease of use, compatibility, and multimedia capabilities. At the same time, Microsoft created Windows NT for businesses who need security, and reliability. (NT version 5.0 is now called Windows 2000). The Win9x and Win NT versions of Windows may look the same, but they have a very different code base, and don't use the same drivers. Windows XP builds on the stability and strength of the Windows NT/2000 Operating System, while incorporating the usability of Windows 95/98. Although Microsoft has referred to Windows XP as a merging of the code base between Windows 95/98 and Windows NT/2000, it has a lot more in common with Windows 2000 (NT 5.0) and is sometimes referred to as NT 5.1

System requirements

Disadvantages of linux operating system

Because of its free nature, Linux is sometimes behind the curve when it comes to brand new hardware compatibility. Though the kernel contributors and maintainers work hard at keeping the kernel up to date, Linux does not have as much of a corporate backing as alternative operating systems. Sometimes you can find third party applications, sometimes you can’t.

Advantages of Linux operating system

The most obvious advantage of using Linux is the fact that it is free to obtain, while Microsoft products are available for a hefty and sometimes recurring fee. Microsoft licenses typically are only allowed to be installed on a single computer, where as a Linux distribution can be installed on any number of computers, without paying a single dime.

Kinds of Operating system

Linux is a freely available, open source, Unix-like operating system. ... As an operating system, Linux consists of the kernel, plus an extensive set.

Operating System

An operating system (OS) is an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer.

Saturday, January 2, 2010

different type of processors

different type of processors

About Different Types of Processors
[Photo] About Different Types of Processors marinm jQuery(document).ready(function(){ jQuery('.intro .thumbnail a:first').attr('href',''); }); There are many different processors on the market. However, there are only a few that you should consider purchasing. Whether you're buying a computer off the shelf, building it from scratch, or upgrading your CPU, you must put some time and thought into which processor to buy. The choice you make today will affect your computer's speed and functionality for years to come. jQuery('.intro .thumbnail').each(function(i,e){ jQuery(e).find('img').one('error',function(){ jQuery(e).remove(); }); }); EmailPrint Article Add to Favorites Flag Article [Photo] Types There are two primary manufacturers of computer microprocessors. Intel and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) lead the market in terms of speed and quality. Intel's desktop CPUs include Celeron, Pentium, and Core. AMD's desktop processors include Sempron, Athlon, and Phenom. Intel makes Celeron M, Pentium M, and Core mobile processors for notebooks. AMD makes mobile versions of its Sempron and Athlon, as well as the Turion mobile processor which comes in Ultra and Dual-Core versions. Both companies make both single-core and multi-core processors. Features Each processor has a clock speed which is measured in gigahertz (GHz). Also, a processor has a front side bus which connects it with the system's random access memory (RAM.) CPUs also typically have two or three levels of cache. Cache is a type of fast memory which serves as a buffer between RAM and the processor. The processor's socket type determines which motherboard it can be installed on. Function A microprocessor is a silicon chip containing millions of microscopic transistors. This chip functions as the computer's brain. It processes the instructions or operations contained within executable computer programs. Instead of taking instructions directly off of the hard drive, the processor takes its instructions from memory. This greatly increases the computer's speed. Considerations If you're thinking about upgrading your processor yourself, you must check your motherboard specs first. The CPU you install must have the same socket size as the slot on the motherboard. Also, when you install a new processor, you may need to install a heat sink and fan. This is because faster processors produce more heat than slower ones. If you fail to protect your new CPU from this heat, you may end up replacing the processor. Size When it comes to processors, size matters. Whether you're buying a new computer or upgrading your old one, you must get the fastest processor you can afford. This is because the processor will become obsolete very quickly. Choosing a 3.6 GHz processor over a 2 GHz today can buy you several years of cheap computing time. Also check the speed of the front side bus (FSB) when purchasing your new computer or CPU. A front side bus of 800 MHz or greater is essential for fast processing speeds. The processor's cache is also important. Make sure it has at least 1 MB of last level cache if your computing needs are average. If you're an extreme gamer or if you run intensive graphics programs, get the processor with the largest cache that fits your budget. There can be hundreds of dollars' difference between the cheapest processors and the most expensive ones. However, investing just a little extra cash can get you a much better processor. Benefits Getting a processor with a dual, triple, or quad core can make a significant difference in the processing power of your computer. It's like having two, three, or four separate processors installed on your computer at one time. These processors work together to make your computer multitask faster and with greater efficiency. Getting a CPU with a larger front side bus can enhance the processor's ability to communicate with RAM, which will increase your computer's overall speed.

type of memory slots

RIMMs use only a 16-bit interface but run at higher speeds than DDR. To get maximum performance, Intel RDRAM chipsets require the use of RIMMs in pairs over a dual-channel 32-bit interface. You have to plan more when upgrading and purchasing RDRAM.



Types of Memory Slots


From the top: SIMM, DIMM and SODIMM memory modules

Memory Speed
SDRAM initially shipped at a speed of 66MHz. As memory buses got faster, it was pumped up to 100MHz, and then 133MHz. The speed grades are referred to as PC66 (unofficially), PC100 and PC133 SDRAM respectively. Some manufacturers are shipping a PC150 speed grade. However, this is an unofficial speed rating, and of little use unless you plan to overclock your system.

DDR comes in PC1600, PC2100, PC2700 and PC3200 DIMMs. A PC1600 DIMM is made up of PC200 DDR chips, while a PC2100 DIMM is made up of PC266 chips. PC2700 uses PC333 DDR chips and PC3200 uses PC400 chips that haven't gained widespread support. Go for PC2700 DDR. It is about the cost of PC2100 memory and will give you better performance.

RDRAM comes in PC600, PC700, PC800 and PC1066 speeds. Go for PC1066 RDRAM if you can find it. If you can't, PC800 RDRAM is widely available.

CAS Latency
SDRAM comes with latency ratings or "CAS (Column Address Strobe) latency" ratings. Standard PC100 / PC133 SDRAM comes in CAS 2 or CAS 3 speed ratings. The lower latency of CAS 2 memory will give you more performance. It also costs a bit more, but it's worth it.

DDR memory comes in CAS 2 and CAS 2.5 ratings, with CAS 2 costing more and performing better.

RDRAM has no CAS latency ratings, but may eventually come in 32 and 4 bank forms with 32-bank RDRAM costing more and performing better. For now, it's all 32-bank RDRAM.

different type of memory card

A memory card or flash memory card is solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device capable of storing digital contents. These are mainly used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, mobile phones, music players, digital cinematography cameras, video game consoles, and other electronics. They offer high re-record-ability, power-free storage, small form factor, and rugged environmental specifications. There are also non-solid-state memory cards that do not use flash memory, and there are different types of flash memory. Many cards incorporate wear levelling algorithms in their design.

There are many different types of memory cards and jobs they are used for. Some common places include in digital cameras, game consoles, cell phones, and industrial applications. PC card (PCMCIA) were among first commercial memory card formats (type I cards) to come out in the 1990s, but are now only mainly used in industrial applications and for I/O jobs (using types I/II/III), as a connection standard for devices (such as a modem). Also in 1990s, a number of memory card formats smaller than PC Card came out, including CompactFlash, SmartMedia, and Miniature Card. In other areas, tiny embedded memory cards (SID) were used in cell phones, game ds. The desire for ultra-small cards for cell-phones, PDAs, and compact digital cameras drove a trend toward smaller cards that left the previous generation of "compact" cards looking big. In digital cameras SmartMedia and CompactFlash had been very successful, in 2001 SM alone captured 50% of the digital camera market and CF had a strangle hold on professional digital cameras. By 2005 however, SD/MMC had nearly taken over SmartMedia's spot, though not to the same level and with stiff competition coming from Memory Stick variants, as well as CompactFlash. In industrial fields, even the venerable PC card (PCMCIA) memory cards still manage to maintain a niche, while in cell-phones and PDAs, the memory card market is highly fragmented.

kind of computer disk drives cable

Floppy Disk Drive
Floppy Disk Drives 8 5 3.jpg
8-inch, 5¼-inch (full height), and 3½-inch drives
Date invented 1969 (8-inch),
1976 (5¼-inch),
1982 (3½-inch)
Invented by IBM team led by David L. Noble[1]
Connects to Controller via:
  • Cable
8-inch, 5¼-inch, and 3½-inch floppy disks

A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible ("floppy") magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell.

Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive or FDD, the initials of which should not be confused with "fixed disk drive", which is another term for a (nonremovable) type of hard disk drive. Invented by IBM, floppy disks in 8-inch (200 mm), 5¼-inch (133.35 mm), and 3½-inch (90 mm) formats enjoyed many years as a popular and ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange, from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment,[2] they have now been largely superseded by USB flash drives, external hard disk drives, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards.

Form factor of the motherboard

Motherboard Form Factors

The form factor determines the general layout, size, and feature placement on a motherboard. Different form factors usually require different style cases. Differences between form factors can include; physical size and shape, mounting hole location, feature placement, power supply connectors, and others.

Form Factor Specifications



Very Old PCs

Full AT, Full Tower



Older PCs

All but Slimline, ATX



Newer PCs




Newer PCs


9.6" 9.6" Specialty PCs Slimline
9.0" 7.5" Specialty PCs Custom Design


Older Retail PCs




Older Retail PCs




Newer Retail PCs


AT Form Factor

The AT form factor is the oldest and the biggest form factor. It was popular until the Baby AT was released, which was around the time of the 386 processor (1992-93). The reason that prompted the Baby AT was the width of the AT (12") and the fact that the board was difficult to install, service, and upgrade.


The Baby AT was the standard in the PC industry from roughly 1993-1997. It is still being used today, usually in Pentium class products.

Some issues with the AT and Baby AT design is the location of the features on the board. The CPU socket is placed so that it may interfere with longer bus cards. In some designs the memory sockets are similarly placed. This can limit the amount and selection of peripheral cards you can install. Also the IO ports are separate and mounted on the case and connected to pin-outs on the motherboard. These are usually located near the floppy and IDE pin-outs and can result in quite a jumble of ribbon cables.


ATX was developed as an evolution of the Baby AT form factor and was defined to address four areas of improvement: enhanced ease of use, better support for current and future I/O, better support for current and future processor technology, and reduced total system cost.

The ATX is basically a Baby AT rotated 90 degrees and providing a new mounting configuration for the power supply. The processor is relocated away from the expansion slots, allowing them to hold full length add-in cards. The longer side of the board is used to host more on-board I/O. The ATX power supply, rather than blowing air out of the chassis, as in most Baby AT platforms, provides air-flow through the chassis and across the processor.


This form factor is basically the same as ATX with a smaller allowable board size.

  • ATX = 12" x 9.6"
  • Mini-ATX = 11.2" x 8.2"


This form factor was developed as a natural evolution of the ATX form factor to address new market trends and PC technologies. microATX supports:

  • Current processor technologies
  • The transition to newer processor technologies
  • AGP high performance graphics solutions
  • Smaller motherboard size
  • Smaller power supply form factor


A subset of the microATX design. FlexATX offers the opportunity for system developers to create many new personal computer designs. FlexATX allows enhanced flexibility where conforming motherboards may be enclosed; that is, all-in-one computing devices, LCD-personal computers, or standard desktop systems.

This form factor is designed to allow very custom case and board designs to be manufactured. For example; The NBA could commission computers that looked like basketballs. There is not too much limit on the shape of the board and case. We should see some very interesting system designs emerging from this form factor.

  • Supports current socketed processor technologies
  • Smaller motherboard size
  • ATX 2.03 I/O panel
  • Same mounting holes as microATX
  • Socket only processors to keep the size small

LPX & Mini LPX

This is based on a design by Western Digital. The expansion slots are on a single riser card which is mounted onto the planar board. Mainly OEM manufacturers (i.e. Packard Bell/NEC, Dell, etc) use these boards.

LPX is an older form factor (8.67" x 9.25") that has been replaced by NLX. The LPX form factor is usually found in desktop model PCs. The LPX case is a slim-line, low-profile case with a riser card arrangement for expansion cards. This means that expansion boards are parallel to the motherboard, rather than perpendicular to it as in other common form factors, such as AT and ATX. This allows for smaller cases, but limits the number of expansion slots, usually to two or three.

LPX motherboards often have the video adapters integrated onto the motherboard, and they may have integrated sound as well. This can provide a high-quality product at low cost, but can make upgrading or repair difficult. It is not always possible to disable the built-in video adapter cards to allow for an upgrade. LPX motherboards also usually come with serial, parallel, and mouse connectors attached to them, like ATX.

The LPX case and motherboard design are not designed for a home PC builder, as they can be cramped and difficult to work in, as well as being non-standard. They also offer poor expandability, poor upgradability, poor cooling, and difficulty of use for the home PC builder.


NLX is a new low profile motherboard form factor designed to improve upon today’s low profile form factors and to adapt to new market trends and PC technologies. NLX does the following:

  • Supports current and future processor technologies
  • Supports new Accelerated Graphics Port (A.G.P.) high performance graphics solutions
  • Supports tall memory technology
  • Provides more system level design and integration flexibility; for example, the new design flexibility allows system designers to implement a motherboard that can be removed quickly, in most cases without removing screws, thus lowering the PC’s total cost of ownership.

The picture above shows an example of an NLX board and riser.

  • The add-in card riser is located at the right edge of the motherboard (as viewed from the front).
  • The processor is located at the front, left section of the motherboard, improving thermal and clearance issues.
  • Taller components such as the processor and tall memory are preferred to be located on the left side of the motherboard, allowing the I/O slots to hold full length add-in cards in many system configurations.
  • At the back of the motherboard (as viewed from the front), the I/O connectors are stacked single and double high to support more connectors.

Several major PC vendors world-wide worked jointly to define the NLX form factor and to incorporate flexibility to accommodate the best designs for current and future PCs. NLX is a public specification intended for widespread use in many types of systems.